For current method: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003438.htm In this group, we have been studying ways to monitor glucose painlessly. Diabetes is when there is too much glucose in the blood stream. Glucose is basically called regular sugar. Glucose goes into the bloodstream to give energy to the cells. Eating too much sugar will give so much energy to the cells and cause diabetes.

Website that we should use. http://engineering.tamu.edu/magazine/2009/monitoring-glucose-painlessly/

Our innovation was to make a monitor that could track many problems that may occur in the body. How this would work is that the patient would have a sensor implanted under a watch. This watch would emit a small laser to bring data from the sensor to the watch. This then could notify the patient about problems such as high blood sugar. This would reduce the cost for blood meter strips and would be a lot less painful. Also, it may be more accurate so that the doctor could provide a specific medication for the patient.

Glucose (C6H12O6), a simple sugar (monosaccharide), is an important carbohydrate in biology. Cells use it as a source of energy and a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration. Starch and cellulose are polymers derived from the dehydration of glucose. The name "glucose" comes from the Greek word glukus (γλυκύς), meaning "sweet." The suffix "-ose" denotes a sugar.

Glucose can adopt several different structures, but all of these structures can be divided into two families of mirror-images (stereoisomers). Only one set of these isomers exists in nature, those derived from the "right-handed form" of glucose, denoted D-glucose. D-glucose is often referred to as dextrose, especially in the food industry. The term dextrose is derived from dextrorotatory glucose.[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose#cite_note-1|[2]]] Solutions of dextrose rotate polarized light to the right (in Latin: dexter = "right" ). This article deals with D-glucose. The mirror-image of the molecule, L-glucose, is discussed separately.

Too much glucose can cause diabetes


For the Display Board:

I’ve organized this into a “worksheet” of sorts. You MUST upload your answers to your team’s Wiki page afterwards. Also, you do NOT have to answer ALL the questions – only the questions you have either been assigned or you are interested in. MAKE SURE YOU KEEP TRACK OF WHERE YOU’RE GETTING YOUR INFORMATION. You do not have to use internet sites! You can use books, scientific journals, etc. – whatever works. Google Books is a wonderful tool (www.google.com > More > Books). Make sure your answers are in terms that you AND YOUR TEAM can understand! Also remember that you have to develop the answers to these individual questions into a paragraph, so be detailed enough that you aren’t skimming over anything important, but, again, you want EVERYONE to understand what it is you are trying to get across.

First paragraph:

Fill in the blanks:

“The blood carries glucose to all parts of the body. Diabetes is (a short statement on what diabetes is). To treat diabetes, one has to take insulin to (a short statement on what insulin does). The treatment for diabetes relies on the blood stream to carry insulin to (a short statement on what organs/body part) to prevent symptoms. Thus, monitoring glucose (a cool but short statement on why monitoring glucose is so important – i.e., it is a matter of life or death). We have an innovative idea to monitor glucose using (a short statement on what your innovation is).” Feel free to change the wording around if it makes sense to.

Blood carries glucose to all parts of the body. Diabetes is when there is too much glucose in the blood stream. To treat diabetes, one has to take insulin to reduce the amount of fat on a person’s body. The treatment for diabetes relies on the blood stream to carry insulin to the blood system and prevents symptoms. Thus, monitoring glucose could be a matter of life or death. We have an innovative idea to monitor glucose using a small sensor which would be implanted into the person’s body. A watch then emits a laser which then gives data to the watch. The watch then gives the person exact measures of the blood sugar that is going through the body.

Christian has completed this paragraph. Approval pending.

Second paragraph:

Describe the parts of the blood/bloodstream (maybe put an image here?). What does it do? (White blood cells, red blood cells, what is in the cells, etc.)

The bloodstream is an organ system that passes nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), gases, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body to help fight diseases and help stabilize body temperature and pH to maintain homeostasis. The bloodstrem is the same thing as the circulatory system. It is made mainly of viens, artries, and the heart. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloodstream .

The bloodstream is an organ system that transports nutrients, gases, hormones and blood cells to and from the cells found in the body to build a healthy immune system and help regulate the body temperature. The bloodstream can also be called the "circulatory system", where the same blood is being used as it runs through the body. The bloodstream uses veins and arteries to transport blood, which will eventually go into the heart. Diabetes is when there is too much glucose in the blood stream. Glucose is called regular sugar. Glucose goes into the bloodstream to give energy to the cells. An excess of glucose means an excess of energy in the cells, which will give so much energy to the cells that it will cause diabetes. Diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) disease. Symptoms of diabetes include blurry vision, excessive thirst, fatigue, frequent urination, hunger, and weight loss. The current way of monitoring is to prick the finger with a small lancet and put the resulting blood onto a special strip, which uses a chemical to tell how much glucose is in the blood. The result is then shown as a number on the monitor.

Griffin has done this paragraph. Approval pending.

Third paragraph:

Unfortunately, there are a lot of problems with our current glucose monitors. One is that they are very painful. Most require that you prick your finger or other places to access blood. Tons of people are required to do this to make sure their lives are safe. The new technology will help measure glucose painlessly. There are also testers that fall into a category called “no coding”. These “no coding” testers can easily lead to inaccurate results. There arte also “alternate site” testers, which use places other than your finger, so they’re painless. These are usually tested in areas where there is less blood flow. This too can also lead to inaccurate results. The fluorescent beads will be more precise. The new technology will also be a lot easier to use. Being able to simply turn on a laser will allow you to do other things, so you can check while you’re in a hurry. Other monitors force you to wait. The laser watch will be more user friendly than any other monitor. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_glucose_monitoring

http://www.livestrong.com/article/286440-how-do-no-coding-glucose-meters-work/

Sammy has done this paragraph. Approval pending.

Fourth paragraph:

Explain the painless monitoring of glucose. (http://engineering.tamu.edu/magazine/2009/monitoring-glucose-painlessly/ )

(Paul) is working on this paragraph.

Our innovation is going to be a watch that essentially will measure glucose levels in the blood stream with inferred technology. This watch will have an inferred laser on the back of the face that will tell the patient his/ her glucose levels, alert him/ her when they are too high, and tell you when to take medication. How it will do this is through a coated strip in the wrist that will change color due to different levels. Now the innovation will send a message to the watch in the form of a number based on the color change. This will be anchored by a watch. instead of color based information what if it sent a message to the watch like a Bluetooth device? This way the patient can get a reading with numbers instead of a color. Every 30 seconds, the laser will take a reading and send back information. If blood glucose levels are too high, the watch will alarm with a sound. This will be very useful because people can know that their levels are too high seconds after it is at a dangerous level, painlessly.

Seventh paragraph:

Identify a scientist working on this problem and tell about him/her. So... someone who is already working on monitoring glucose in the blood, etc.

(George) is working on this paragraph.

Gerard Coté is developing a process that would allow people to check their blood sugar levels just by looking at a wristwatch-like meter. The idea for the wristwatch came to Coté while he was at a conference and heard a doctor’s presentation on using lasers to remove tattoos. “I was already working in the glucose sensing area for diabetics, and I thought, maybe there is an implant we could develop that I could optically interrogate,” Coté said. It works by taking sheath of tiny fluorescent beads — smaller than a strand of human hair — and inserting it into the wrist of a diabetic patient, just below the skin. The sheath is invisible, but when you shine a small laser on it, it glows and changes color to tell you what the blood sugar level is.

Eighth paragraph:

Report on your team’s interview with doctor/scientist…(to be decided)

Diana Kraemer is a brain surgeon who had just retired. She explained diabetes to our team. Diabetes can disable the liver, your eyes, the brain, your kidney, and arms and legs. A lack of glucose is bad because the brain eats 80% of the body’s glucose. The brain can survive 3-4 minutes without oxygen and 1-2 hours without glucose. When there is not enough glucose in the brain it can cause kidney failure, nerves die in feet, strokes, become blind, and die. Too much glucose can cause Diabetes. Insulin regulates your blood sugar. Insulin dependent people need to take shots to get insulin while insulin nondependent people need to take medicine.

Ninth paragraph:

Bibliography

This paragraph cannot be done yet.

Artwork: Ideas?

What images can be used?

What can be made into a 3D diagram? How would you make these diagrams?

(name here) is the artist for this team.

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